No matter the color, our eyes are amazing mechanisms. They work work much like very complex cameras. Like a camera, the human eye uses light bouncing off images to capture an image. No light, no image.
There are four main parts of our eyes that are vital to the production of sight. First we have the surface of the eye that includes the cornea and aqueous humor. The cornea is the surface layer of the eye that is covered in a thin layer of tears and focuses light and allows it to penetrate. While the aqueous humor is the layer of moisture directly between the cornea and pupil.
Also part of the eye surface are the pupil (the dark circle in the middle of the iris), crystalline lens, which is directly behind the pupil and changes shape to focus on light reflecting from near or distant objects, and the ciliary muscles, which surround the lens and allows us to see far objects.
The next main part is the center of the eye which include the vitreous of the eye and the retina. The vitreous of the eye is a clear, jelly-like substance that surrounds the retina, which is like a film in a camera. Focused light is projected onto it's flat, smooth surface and images are projected onto the retina (and are upside down!).
Next, we have photoreceptors which have two main varieties, rods and cones. Rods are useful for monochrome vision in poor light, while cones detect more detail. There are millions of photoreceptors in an eye and they are light's final destination. Light is converted into electrochemical signals and those signals are related to the vision center near the back of the brains via the optic nerve.
Lastly, our brain, translates signals in to the images we see and flips them 180 degrees to interpret the image in the correct format. Although our eyes do not technically see, they are certainly the medium through which we sense and collect data. Our brain interprets that data to create an accurate picture of the world around us.